Source:Ministério da Educação, Lisbon (2007)
Keywords:arts education, Cultural profile schools, Dance education, Formal education, Learning, music education / musical education, Schools, teachers, teaching, Visual arts education
Report that provides a diagnosys of artistic education in Portugal, focusing on music, dance and visual arts. It assumes a critical and reflexive perspective as it aims at being a support to political decisions, providing a set of recomendations to improve artistic education. It includes: the main features of artistic education, such as schools, number of students, teachers, etc.; an historical perspective on the prevelant paradigma in Portugal of artistic education – “specificity paradigma”; the data analysis concerning a survey to the teachers and students on their perspectives towards artistic education and it could be improved; a comparative analysis with 8 european countries (France, Spain, England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Italy and Norway.
The research is a diagnosys of artistic education in Portugal, focusing on music, dance and visual arts. It assumes a critical and reflexive perspective as it aims of being a support to political decisions, providing a set of recomendations to improve artistic education. The main research question adressed is: How is artistic education in Portugal configured and which paradigma underlies its creation and transformation?
The aims defined are:
- To describe and analyse how artistic education of dance, music and visual arts is organised;
- To develop a comparative analysis of eight countries (France, Spain, England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Italy and Norway) in order to understand how artistic education evolved;
- To identify the emerging and consolidation conditions of artistic education since the second half of the 19th century to the end of the 20th century;
- To understand the expectations and perspectives of teachers and students towards artistic education;
- To propose a set of recommendations aiming at improving artistic education
The methodology includes the following procedures:
- descriptive data analysis (e.g. number of schools with artistic education, number of students, number of teachers, regional distribution, etc.
- statistics data analysis;
- document analysis (e.g. legislation, reports, studies, etc.);
- survey analysis of two questionnaires applied to students and teachers on their perspectives and expectations towards artistic education;
- interviews (individual and collective) with various social actors.
The study does not present an understanding of arts education, but it concludes that artistic education in Portugal has a tradition based on the “specificity paradigma”, meaning that artistic education should be based on different curricular and pedagogical principles and that there should be an early selection of the students who have skills to pursue artistic education.
The study does not focus on interculturality.
The study was developped during 10 months, with a team of 6 persons. It was commissioned by the Ministry of Education.
- The research main insight is to present a quite complete portrait of artistic education in Portugal. The study presents a characterisation of the three domains analysed: music, dance and visual arts.
Music: the music education is concentrated in specialised schools, what dificcults the enlargement to all levels of education and to branches not devoted to artistic education; it is still lacking a strategy to consider music as an education domain to all the students and not only to the ones that go to the specialised schools.
Dance: there is a lack of strategy concerning dance education; to define and apply it, it is important to develop mechanisms of evaluation.
Visual arts: there are three schools in Portugal devoted to this area, but it should be enlarged; it lacks also a platform of dialogue between the schools.
Artistic education in Portugal, particularly in what concerns Dance and Music, is scarcely integrated into the education system.
- Compared with the other countries, some of the main results are:
- Portugal has the shortest learning trajectory;
- In secondary school students can only proceed and get a diploma in Visual Arts;
- Portuguese children are earlier selected to integrate artistic education (“talent paradigma”);
- Some main conclusions and recomendations – main axes: to know, to define, to consolidate, to expand
To know: the need to know in detail artistic education, to have the information up to date in order to define what artistic education should be. The knowledge is scarce and the information is not available nor centralised by an organism. It lacks a coherent strtategy of data gathering and of evaluation of specialised artistic education.
To define: to define what artistic education should be in order to define the legal framework. The schools are not integrated and it lacks the definition of rules of organisation and regulation, particularly in dance and music. The schools have to be integrated in the education system and should not have a status of “exception”. They also have to be articulated with universities. There is a need to provide better infrastructures to schools, as well as training to teachers and non precarious conditions, providing them opportunities to proceed their careers.
To consolidate: to provide a solid framework in order to create the institutional conditions for integrated and not only specialised artistic education.
To expand: to expand artistic education in secondary schools and to create a net of institutions more suited to the reality.